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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD English GUM

Language: English (code: en)
Family: Indo-European, Germanic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Siyao Peng, Amir Zeldes.

Repository: UD_English-GUM
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Genre: academic, fiction, nonfiction, news, spoken, web, wiki

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either English-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [amir • zeldes (æt) georgetown • edu]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


Universal Dependencies version of syntax annotations from the GUM corpus (https://corpling.uis.georgetown.edu/gum/)

GUM, the Georgetown University Multilayer corpus, is an open source collection of richly annotated web texts from multiple text types. The corpus is collected and expanded by students as part of the curriculum in the course LING-367 “Computational Corpus Linguistics” at Georgetown University. The selection of text types is meant to represent different communicative purposes, while coming from sources that are readily and openly available (usually Creative Commons licenses), so that new texts can be annotated and published with ease.

The dependencies in the corpus were originally annotated using Stanford Typed Depenencies (de Marneffe & Manning 2013) and converted automatically to UD using DepEdit (https://corpling.uis.georgetown.edu/depedit/). The rule-based conversion takes into account gold entity annotations found in other annotation layers of the GUM corpus (e.g. entity annotations). The conversion script used can found in the GUM build bot code, available from the (non-UD) GUM repository. For more details see the corpus website.


GUM annotation team (so far - thanks for participating!)

Adrienne Isaac, Akitaka Yamada, Amani Aloufi, Amelia Becker, Andrea Price, Andrew O’Brien, Anna Runova, Anne Butler, Arianna Janoff, Ayan Mandal, Brandon Tullock, Brent Laing, Candice Penelton, Chenyue Guo, Colleen Diamond, Connor O’Dwyer, Dan Simonson, Didem Ikizoglu, Edwin Ko, Emily Pace, Emma Manning, Ethan Beaman, Han Bu, Hang Jiang, Hanwool Choe, Hassan Munshi, Ho Fai Cheng, Jakob Prange, Jehan al-Mahmoud, Jemm Excelle Dela Cruz, Joaquin Gris Roca, John Chi, Jongbong Lee, Juliet May, Katarina Starcevic, Katherine Vadella, Lara Bryfonski, Lindley Winchester, Logan Peng, Lucia Donatelli, Margaret Anne Rowe, Margaret Borowczyk, Maria Stoianova, Mariko Uno, Mary Henderson, Maya Barzilai, Md. Jahurul Islam, Michaela Harrington, Minnie Annan, Mitchell Abrams, Mohammad Ali Yektaie, Naomee-Minh Nguyen, Nicholas Workman, Nicole Steinberg, Rachel Thorson, Rebecca Childress, Ruizhong Li, Ryan Murphy, Sakol Suethanapornkul, Sean Macavaney, Sean Simpson, Shannon Mooney, Siddharth Singh, Siyu Liang, Stephanie Kramer, Sylvia Sierra, Timothy Ingrassia, Wenxi Yang, Xiaopei Wu, Yang Liu, Yilun Zhu, Yingzhu Chen, Yiran Xu, Young-A Son, Yushi Zhao, Zhuxin Wang, Amir Zeldes

… and other annotators who wish to remain anonymous!


As a scholarly citation for the corpus in articles, please use this paper:

Statistics of UD English GUM

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview