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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Japanese Modern

Language: Japanese (code: ja)
Family: Japanese

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Mai Omura, Masayuki Asahara, Yuta Takahashi.

Repository: UD_Japanese-Modern
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Genre: nonfiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Japanese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [masayu-a (æt) ninjal • ac • jp]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features not available
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This Universal Dependencies (UD) Japanese treebank is based on the definition of UD Japanese convention described in the UD documentation. The original sentences are from `Corpus of Historical Japanese’ (CHJ).

The Japanese UD treebank contains the sentences from CHJ Meiji Era / Taishō Era Series I: Magazines - Meiroku Zasshi samples http://pj.ninjal.ac.jp/corpus_center/chj/meiji_taisho-en.html with BCCWJ-DepPara[2] compatible annotation [5].

We prepared conversion rules from BCCWJ-DepPara to UD_Japanese v2.1 guidelines [3][4].


The all data in UD_Japanese-Modern is test data.

test: all


You are encouraged to cite the following paper when you refer to the Universal Dependencies Japanese Treebank.

Omura, M., Takahashi, Y., & Asahara, M. (2017). Universal Dependency for Japanese Modern. In JADH-2017.

Asahara, M., Kanayama, H., Tanaka, T., Miyao, Y., Uematsu, S., Mori, S., Matsumoto, Y., Omura, M., & Murawaki, Y. (2018). Universal Dependencies Version 2 for Japanese. In LREC-2018.


This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants Numbers JP15K12888 and JP17H00917 and is a project of the Center for Corpus Development, NINJAL.

The original treebank was provided by:

The corpus was converted by:

through discussion and validation with

Statistics of UD Japanese Modern

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview