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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Norwegian Bokmaal

Language: Norwegian (code: no)
Family: Indo-European, Germanic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Lilja Øvrelid, Fredrik Jørgensen, Petter Hohle.

Repository: UD_Norwegian-Bokmaal
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-SA

Genre: news, blog, nonfiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Norwegian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [liljao (æt) ifi • uio • no]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


The Norwegian UD treebank is based on the Bokmål section of the Norwegian Dependency Treebank (NDT), which is a syntactic treebank of Norwegian. NDT has been automatically converted to the UD scheme by Lilja Øvrelid at the University of Oslo.

NDT was developed 2011-2014 at the National Library of Norway in collaboration with the Text Laboratory and the Department of Informatics at the University of Oslo. NDT contains around 300,000 tokens taken from a variety of genres. The treebank texts have been manually annotated for morphosyntactic information. The morphological annotation mainly follows mainly the Oslo-Bergen Tagger. The syntactic annotation follows, to a large extent, the Norwegian Reference Grammar, as well as a dependency annotation scheme formulated at the outset of the annotation project and iteratively refined throughout the construction of the treebank. For more information, see the references below.


In creating the data splits, care has been taken to preserve contiguous texts in the different splits and also to keep a fair balance of genres in each of the splits. Petter Hohle created the splits for the Norwegian UD treebank. The splits were created by concatenating the following files (available with the distribution of NDT):

Training data (15696 sentences, 180 individual files):

Development data (2410 sentences, 26 individual files):

Test data (1939 sentences, 26 individual files):


Tree count: 20045

Word count: 311277

Token count: 311277

Dep. relations: 35 of which 2 language specific

POS tags: 17

Category=value feature pairs: 31


White space always indicates a token boundary and punctuation constitute separate tokens, except:

The treebank does not contain multiword tokens.


The PoS-tags follow the universal tag set and does not add any language-specific PoS-tags. The morphological features follow the Oslo-Bergen Tagger scheme (Hagen et. al., 2000). PoS-tags and morphological features were converted automatically to the UD scheme.


The syntactic annotation in the Norwegian UD treebank conforms to the UD guidelines, adding language-specific relations for relative clauses (acl:relcl) and verb particles (compound:prt). The annotation has been automatically converted to UD from the original dependency scheme described in Solberg et. al. (2014) and further described in the NDT guidelines (Kinn et. al.). The conversion has not been manually checked. There are a few known discrepancies from UD:


NDT has been automatically converted to the UD scheme by Lilja Øvrelid at the University of Oslo. Petter Hohle created the data splits and Fredrik Jørgensen aligned the treebank to the original texts. We thank the annotators of the original NDT: Pål Kristian Eriksen, Kari Kinn and Per Erik Solberg.

Statistics of UD Norwegian Bokmaal

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview