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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Slovenian SSJ

Language: Slovenian (code: sl)
Family: Indo-European, Slavic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Kaja Dobrovoljc, Tomaž Erjavec, Simon Krek.

Repository: UD_Slovenian-SSJ
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Genre: news, nonfiction, fiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Slovenian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [kaja • dobrovoljc (æt) gmail • com; tomaz • erjavec (æt) ijs • si; simon • krek (æt) ijs • si]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


The Slovenian UD Treebank is a rule-based conversion of the ssj500k treebank, the largest collection of manually syntactically annotated data in Slovenian, originally annotated in the JOS annotation scheme.

The Slovenian SSJ UD Treebank (Dobrovoljc et al. 2017) is based on the ssj500k treebank (Krek et al. 2015), a balanced collection of sampled texts from the FidaPLUS reference corpus of written Slovene (Arhar and Gorjanc 2007). The original ssj500k corpus has been manually segmented, tokenized, lemmatized and morphosyntactically tagged within JOS project, in which the annotation guidelines have also been developed (Erjavec et al. 2010). Additionally, approximately one half of the ssj500k treebank has been manually annotated for dependency relations, according to the JOS syntactic annotation scheme. The syntactically annotated part of the ssj500k corpus (known as ssj200k), consisting of 11,411 annotated sentences and 235,864 tokens, has been used as the basis for conversion to the Slovenian UD Treebank.

The conversion from ssj200k to the Slovenian SSJ UD Treebank was completely automatic, based on a large set of rules for both morphosyntactic and syntactic layer, which include different lexical, morphological and dependency features. Due to the specifics of the original JOS syntactic annotation scheme, not all dependency relations from the original ssj200k treebank could be converted automatically, resulting in a smaller UD treebank size. The current version of the Slovenian UD Treebank thus contains 8,000 sentences with 140,670 tokens taken from various text types, e.g. fiction, non-fiction and periodicals, dating from 1990-2000. The original JOS annotations are included as part of the POSTAG (JOS morphosyntactic tags) and MISC (JOS dependency heads and labels) columns in the CONLLU format.

The corpus is linearly split into training (80%), development (10%) and test (10%) data.


We wish to thank all of the contributors to the original ssj500k training corpus: Kristina Bizjak, Živa Blaževič, Klara Canzutti, Lea Cibrič, Kaja Dobrovoljc, Tadeja Dušej, Tomaž Erjavec, Ivana Fekeža, Nanika Holz, Urška Kamenšek, Simon Krek, Andreja Košir, Robert Kuret, Nina Ledinek, Andrej Lovšin, Boštjan Marhold, Nina Mikulin, Barbara Modrijan, Sara Može, Tanja Novak, Lea Peršič, Tanja Radovič, Simona Šinkovec, Urška Vranjek, Jerneja Umer, Petra Žalodec.

Statistics of UD Slovenian SSJ

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview