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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Cantonese HK

Language: Cantonese (code: yue)
Family: Sino-Tibetan

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.1 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Kim Gerdes, John Lee, Herman Leung, Tak-sum Wong.

Repository: UD_Cantonese-HK
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: spoken

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Cantonese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [tswong-c (æt) my • cityu • edu • hk; jsylee (æt) cityu • edu • hk]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually, natively in UD style
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


The Cantonese-HK UD treebank was manually annotated by Tak-sum Wong and Herman H. M. Leung at City University of Hong Kong, by finely transcribing three films shooted by students from the School of Creative Media. The data are in Tradiaitonal Chinese. These trees form a parallel treebank with those in Chinese-HK.



This work was partially supported by a grant from the PROCORE-France/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme sponsored by the Research Grants Council and the Consulate General of France in Hong Kong (Reference No.: F-CityU107/15 and N 35322RG); and by two Strategic Research Grants (Project No. 7004494 and No. 7004736) from City University of Hong Kong.

Statistics of UD Cantonese HK

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview