# The Outer Solar System for 210 Million Years

Abstract

We have used a special-purpose computer to integrate the orbits of the outer five planets for more than 100 Myr into the future
and more than 100 Myr into the past. The strongest features in the Fourier transforms of the orbital elements of the Jovian
planets can be identified with the frequencies predicted by linear secular theory. Many of the weaker features in the Fourier
spectra are identified as linear combinations of the basic frequencies. We note serious differences between our measurements
and the predictions of Bretagnon (1974). The amplitude of the 3.796 Myr period libration of Pluto’s longitude of perihelion
is modulated with a period of 34 Myr. Very long periods, on the order of 137 Myr, are also seen. The orbit of Pluto is stable
for the duration of our integration; the maximum Lyapunov characteristic exponent is less than 10−6.8 yr−1.

Content uploaded by Gerald Jay Sussman

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Gerald Jay Sussman on Jul 24, 2014

This research hasn't been cited in any other publications.