Primitive data type
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- a basic type is a data type provided by a programming language as a basic building block. Most languages allow more complicated composite types to be recursively constructed starting from basic types.
- a built-in type is a data type for which the programming language provides built-in support.
In most programming languages, all basic data types are built-in. In addition, many languages also provide a set of composite data types. Opinions vary as to whether a built-in type that is composite should be considered "primitive".
Depending on the language and its implementation, primitive data types may or may not have a one-to-one correspondence with objects in the computer's memory. However, one usually expects operations on basic primitive data types to be the fastest language constructs there are. Integer addition, for example, can be performed as a single machine instruction, and some processors offer specific instructions to process sequences of characters with a single instruction. In particular, the C standard mentions that "a 'plain' int object has the natural size suggested by the architecture of the execution environment". This means that
int is likely to be 32 bits long on a 32-bit architecture. Basic primitive types are almost always value types.
Most languages do not allow the behavior or capabilities of primitive (either built-in or basic) data types to be modified by programs. Exceptions include Smalltalk, which permits all data types to be extended within a program, adding to the operations that can be performed on them or even redefining the built-in operations.
Classic basic primitive types may include:
- Character (
- Integer (
byte) with a variety of precisions;
- Floating-point number (
- Fixed-point number (
fixed) with a variety of precisions and a programmer-selected scale.
- Boolean, logical values true and false.
- Reference (also called a pointer or handle or descriptor), a value referring to another object. The reference can be a memory address, or an index to a collection of values.
More sophisticated types which can be built-in include:
- Tuple in Standard ML, Python, Scala, Swift, Elixir
- List in Common Lisp, Python, Scheme, Haskell
- Complex number in C99, Fortran, Common Lisp, Python, D, Go
- Rational number in Common Lisp, Haskell
Specific primitive data types
|Size (bytes)||Size (bits)||Names||Signed range (assuming two's complement for signed)||Unsigned range|
|1 byte||8 bits||Byte, octet, minimum size of
||−128 to +127||0 to 255|
|2 bytes||16 bits||x86 word, minimum size of
||−32,768 to +32,767||0 to 65,535|
|4 bytes||32 bits||x86 double word, minimum size of
||−2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647||0 to 4,294,967,295|
|8 bytes||64 bits||x86 quadruple word, minimum size of
||−9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to +9,223,372,036,854,775,807||0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615|
|unlimited/8||unlimited||Bignum||–2unlimited/2 to +(2unlimited/2 − 1)||0 to 2unlimited − 1|
Literals for integers can be written as regular Arabic numerals, consisting of a sequence of digits and with negation indicated by a minus sign before the value. However, most programming languages disallow use of commas for or spaces digit grouping. Examples of integer literals are:
There are several alternate methods for writing integer literals in many programming languages:
- Most programming languages, especially those influenced by C, prefix an integer literal with 0X or 0x to represent a hexadecimal value, e.g. 0xDEADBEEF. Other languages may use a different notation, e.g. some assembly languages append an H or h to the end of a hexadecimal value.
- Perl, Ruby, Java, Julia, D, Rust and Python (starting from version 3.6) allow embedded underscores for clarity, e.g. 10_000_000, and fixed-form Fortran ignores embedded spaces in integer literals.
- In C and C++, a leading zero indicates an octal value, e.g. 0755. This was primarily intended to be used with Unix modes; however, it has been criticized because normal integers may also lead with zero. As such, Python, Ruby, Haskell, and OCaml prefix octal values with 0O or 0o, following the layout used by hexadecimal values.
- Several languages, including Java, C#, Scala, Python, Ruby, and OCaml, can represent binary values by prefixing a number with 0B or 0b.
A boolean type, typically denoted "bool" or "boolean", is typically a logical type that can be either "true" or "false". Although only one bit is necessary to accommodate the value set "true" and "false", programming languages typically implement boolean types as one or more bytes.
Many languages (e.g. Java, Pascal and Ada) implement booleans adhering to the concept of boolean as a distinct logical type. Languages, though, may implicitly convert booleans to numeric types at times to give extended semantics to booleans and boolean expressions or to achieve backwards compatibility with earlier versions of the language. For example, ANSI C and its former standards did not have a dedicated boolean type. Instead, numeric values of zero are interpreted as "false", and any other value is interpreted as "true". C99 adds a distinct boolean type that can be included with stdbool.h, and C++ supports
bool as a built-in type and "true" and "false" as reserved words.
A floating-point number represents a limited-precision rational number that may have a fractional part. These numbers are stored internally in a format equivalent to scientific notation, typically in binary but sometimes in decimal. Because floating-point numbers have limited precision, only a subset of real or rational numbers are exactly representable; other numbers can be represented only approximately.
Literals for floating point numbers include a decimal point, and typically use e or E to denote scientific notation. Examples of floating-point literals are:
A fixed-point number represents a limited-precision rational number that may have a fractional part. These numbers are stored internally in a scaled-integer form, typically in binary but sometimes in decimal. Because fixed-point numbers have limited precision, only a subset of real or rational numbers are exactly representable; other numbers can be represented only approximately. Fixed-point numbers also tend to have a more limited range of values than floating point, and so the programmer must be careful to avoid overflow in intermediate calculations as well as the final result.
Characters and strings
A character type (typically called "char") may contain a single letter, digit, punctuation mark, symbol, formatting code, control code, or some other specialized code (e.g., a byte order mark). In C,
Characters may be combined into strings. The string data can include numbers and other numerical symbols but will be treated as text.
Strings are implemented in various ways, depending on the programming language. The simplest way to implement strings is to create them as an array of characters, followed by a delimiting character used to signal the end of the string, usually NUL. These are referred to as null-terminated strings, and are usually found in languages with a low amount of hardware abstraction, such as C and Assembly. While easy to implement, null terminated strings have been criticized for causing buffer overflows. Most high-level scripting languages, such as Python, Ruby, and many dialects of BASIC, have no separate character type; strings with a length of one are normally used to represent single characters. Some languages, such as C++ and Java, have the capability to use null-terminated strings (usually for backwards-compatibility measures), but additionally provide their own class for string handling (
java.lang.String, respectively) in the standard library.
Literals for characters and strings are usually surrounded by quotation marks: sometimes, single quotes (') are used for characters and double quotes (") are used for strings. Python accepts either variant for its string notation.
Examples of character literals in C syntax are:
- '\t' (tab character)
Examples of string literals in C syntax are:
- "Hello World"
Numeric data type ranges
Each numeric data type has its maximum and minimum value known as the range. Attempting to store a number outside the range may lead to compiler/runtime errors, or to incorrect calculations (due to truncation) depending on the language being used.
The range of a variable is based on the number of bytes used to save the value, and an integer data type is usually able to store 2n values (where n is the number of bits that contribute to the value). For other data types (e.g. floating-point values) the range is more complicated and will vary depending on the method used to store it. There are also some types that do not use entire bytes, e.g. a boolean that requires a single bit, and represents a binary value (although in practice a byte is often used, with the remaining 7 bits being redundant). Some programming languages (such as Ada and Pascal) also allow the opposite direction, that is, the programmer defines the range and precision needed to solve a given problem and the compiler chooses the most appropriate integer or floating-point type automatically.
- Fog, Agner (2010-02-16). "Calling conventions for different C++ compilers and operating systems: Chapter 3, Data Representation" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- ECMAScript 6th Edition draft: https://people.mozilla.org/~jorendorff/es6-draft.html#sec-literals-numeric-literals Archived 2013-12-16 at the Wayback Machine