Christian universalism

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Off Center Cross of Christian Universalism

Christian universalism is a school of Christian theology focused around the doctrine of universal reconciliation – the view that all human beings will ultimately be "saved" and restored to a right relationship with God.

The term Christian universalism was used in the 1820s by Russell Streeter of the Christian Intelligencer of Portland – a descendant of Adams Streeter who had founded one of the first Universalist Churches on September 14, 1785.[1][2][3] Christian universalists believe this was the most common interpretation of Christianity in Early Christianity, prior to the 6th century.[4][5] Christians from a diversity of denominations and traditions believe in the tenets of Christian universalism, such as the reality of an afterlife without the possibility of eternal punishment in hell.[6]

As a formal Christian denomination, Christian universalism originated in the late 18th century with the Universalist Church of America. There is currently no single denomination uniting Christian universalists, but a few denominations teach some of the principles of Christian universalism or are open to them. In 2007, the Christian Universalist Association was founded to serve as an ecumenical umbrella organization for churches, ministries, and individuals who believe in Christian universalism.

Unitarian Universalism historically grew out of Christian universalism but is not an exclusively Christian denomination. It formed from a 1961 merger of two historically Christian denominations, the Universalist Church of America and the American Unitarian Association, both based in the United States.


In his Plain Guide to Universalism, the universalist Thomas Wiltmore wrote, "The sentiment by which Universalists are distinguished, is this: that at last every individual of the human race shall become holy and happy. This does not comprise the whole of their faith, but, merely that feature of it which is peculiar to them and by which they are distinguished from the rest of the world."[7]

The remaining central beliefs of Christian universalism are compatible with Christianity in general:

  • God is the loving Parent of all people, see Love of God.
  • Jesus Christ reveals the nature and character of God and is the spiritual leader of humankind, see New Covenant.
  • Humankind is created with an immortal soul which death does not end—or a mortal soul that shall be resurrected and/or preserved by God—and which God will not wholly destroy.[8]
  • Sin has negative consequences for the sinner either in this life or the afterlife. All of God's punishments for sin are corrective and remedial.

In 1899 the Universalist General Convention, later called the Universalist Church of America, adopted the Five Principles: the belief in God, belief in Jesus Christ, the immortality of the human soul, that sinful actions have consequence, and universal reconciliation.[9]

The inclusion of theosis as a sixth point is found in the statement of faith adopted in 2007 by the Christian Universalist Association.[10] In the context of Christian universalism, theosis— which can be translated as divinization or the process of being made more God-like—means to be made more Christ-like, or that all souls will ultimately be reconciled and conformed to the image of the glorified resurrected Christ.

Views on Hell[edit]

Christian Universalists disagree on whether or not Hell exists. However, they do agree that if it does, the punishment there is corrective and remedial, and does not last forever.[11]

Purgatorial Hell[edit]

Purgatorial Universalism was the belief of some of the early church fathers such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Gregory of Nyssa. It asserts that the unsaved will undergo hell, but that hell is remedial (neither everlasting nor purely retributive) according to key scriptures and that after purification or conversion all will enter Heaven.

Fourth-century Christian theologian and Bishop Diodorus of Tarsus wrote: "For the wicked there are punishments, not perpetual, however, lest the immortality prepared for them should be a disadvantage, but they are to be purified for a brief period according to the amount of malice in their works. They shall therefore suffer punishment for a short space, but immortal blessedness having no end awaits them…the penalties to be inflicted for their many and grave sins are very far surpassed by the magnitude of the mercy to be shown to them."[12]

Eternal Hell in Christian history[edit]

Christian Universalists assert that the doctrine of eternal Hell was not a part of Christ's teachings nor even the early church, and that it was added in.[13] The first clear mention of endless misery is to be found in a work from 155-165 CE by Tatian.[14] Other early references to a Hell of infinite duration come from Latin church father Tertullian in the late 2nd and 3rd century.[15] According to Theologian Edward Beecher in the first four centuries there were six main theological schools and only one of them advocated the idea of eternal Hell.[16]

Origins of the idea of Hell as eternal[edit]

Christian Universalists point towards the mistranslations of the Greek word αιών (Lit. aion- an epoch of time), as giving rise to the idea of eternal Hell.[17][18][19] Dr. Ken Vincent writes "When it (aion) was translated into Latin Vulgate, 'aion' became 'aeternam' which means 'eternal."[17] He also states that the first written record of the idea of an eternal Hell comes from Tertullian, who wrote in Latin.

The second major source of the idea of Hell as eternal was the 4th-century theologian Augustine. According to author Steve Gregg, it was Tertullian's writings, plus Augustine's views and writings on eternal Hell which "overwhelmed" the other views of a temporary Hell. First Augustine's views of Hell were accepted in the early Latin Church, out of which rose the Roman Catholic church. Up until The Reformation Augustine's view of Hell as eternal was not questioned.[20]

Mistranslation of the Greek Word Aion[edit]

About the word aion as having connotations of "eternal" or "temporal", the 19th century theologian Marvin Vincent wrote:

Aion, transliterated aeon, is a period of longer or shorter duration, having a beginning and an end, and complete in itself. Aristotle (peri ouranou, i. 9,15) says: "The period which includes the whole time of one's life is called the aeon of each one." Hence it often means the life of a man, as in Homer, where one's life (aion) is said to leave him or to consume away (Iliad v. 685; Odyssey v. 160). It is not, however, limited to human life; it signifies any period in the course of events, as the period or age before Christ; the period of the millennium; the mythological period before the beginnings of history....

The adjective aionios in like manner carries the idea of time. Neither the noun nor the adjective, in themselves, carry the sense of endless or everlasting. They may acquire that sense by their connotation, as, on the other hand, aidios, which means everlasting, has its meaning limited to a given point of time in Jude 6. Aionios means enduring through or pertaining to a period of time. Both the noun and the adjective are applied to limited periods....

Words which are habitually applied to things temporal or material cannot carry in themselves the sense of endlessness. Even when applied to God, we are not forced to render aionios everlasting. Of course the life of God is endless; but the question is whether, in describing God as aionios, it was intended to describe the duration of his being, or whether some different and larger idea was not contemplated.[21]

Arguments against the idea of eternal Hell[edit]

Author Thomas Talbott states that if one believes in the idea of eternal Hell or that some souls will be destroyed, one must either let go of the idea that it is God's wish and desires to save all beings, or accept the idea that God wants to, but will not "successfully accomplish his will and satisfy his own desire in this matter."[22]

Author David Burnfield defends the postmortem view, that God continues to evangelize to people even after they die (1 Chron 16:34; Isa 9:2; Rom 8:35-39; Eph 4:8-9; 1 Pet 3:18-20; 4:6) The main problem with the traditional view – and one that has never been satisfactorily addressed – is how can one “accept Christ” if they have never heard of Christ, or were unable to understand the message (i.e. too young, mentally handicapped, etc.).


According to the New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1912), over the first five hundred years of Christian history there are records of at least six theological schools: Four of these schools were Universalist (one each in Alexandria, Antioch, Caesarea, and EdessaNisibis), one taught conditional immortality (in Ephesus), and the last taught eternal hell (in Carthage or Rome).[23]

The Universalist Church of America, originally called the Universalist General Convention, emerged in the late 18th century from a mixture of Anabaptists, Moravians, liberal Quakers, and people influenced by Pietist movements such as Methodism.[24] Americans from these religious backgrounds gradually created a new denominational tradition of Christian Universalism during the 19th century. The Universalist Church of America grew to be the sixth largest denomination in the United States at its peak.

John Murray, who is called the "Father of American Universalism," was a disciple of the Welshman James Relly and promoted Relly's Universalist form of Methodism in America.[25] He was a central figure in the founding of the Universalist Church of America in 1793. He served as pastor of the Universalist Society of Boston and wrote many hymns.

Another important figure in early American Christian Universalism was George de Benneville, a French Huguenot preacher and physician who was imprisoned for advocating Universalism and later emigrated to Pennsylvania where he continued preaching on the subject. De Benneville was noted for his friendly and respectful relationship with Native Americans and his pluralistic and multicultural view of spiritual truth which was well ahead of his time. One of his most significant accomplishments was helping to produce the Sauer Bible, the first German language Bible printed in America. In this Bible version, passages teaching universal reconciliation were marked in boldface.[26]

Other significant early modern Christian Universalist leaders include Elhanan Winchester, a Baptist preacher who wrote several books promoting the universal salvation of all souls after a period in purgatory, who founded the first Universalist church in Philadelphia, and founded a church that ministered to African American slaves in South Carolina;[27] Hosea Ballou, a Universalist preacher and writer in New England;[28] and Hannah Whitall Smith, a writer and evangelist from a Quaker background who was active in the Holiness movement as well as the women's suffrage and temperance movements.[29]

A separate branch of Christian Universalism that arose in the early 20th century was the Primitive Baptist Universalists, also called "No-Hellers." They were a group of Baptists in the central and southern Appalachian Mountain region of the United States that taught universal reconciliation and, like Hosea Ballou, embraced the "Ultra-Universalist" position that there is no literal hell beyond earth.[30]

The Unity School of Christianity, founded in 1889 by Charles and Myrtle Fillmore, has taught some Universalist beliefs such as God's total goodness, the divine nature of human beings, and the rejection of the traditional Christian belief that God condemns people to hell.[31]

The Universalist Church of America gradually declined in the early to mid 20th century and merged with the American Unitarian Association in 1961, creating the modern-day Unitarian Universalist Association, which does not officially subscribe to exclusively Christian theology. Christian Universalism largely passed into obscurity for the next few decades with the end of the Universalist Church as a separate denomination. However, the Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship remains as an organization for Christians from the Unitarian Universalist tradition and liberal Christians interested in Unitarianism and Universalism.[32]

Some Christians from a Pentecostal background who were involved in the Latter Rain Movement of the 1940s and 1950s came to believe in the ideas of Christian Universalism on their own, separately from the Universalist Church tradition. They emphasized the teachings of universal reconciliation and theosis. These ideas were spread primarily through newsletters and traveling evangelists from the 1950s to 1980s, and were not typically identified by the term "Universalism." The only significant organization representing these beliefs that emerged within the Charismatic tradition was the Home Missions Church, a loosely organized network of ministers and house churches founded in 1944.

Universal reconciliation in the Testament and pre-modern Christianity[edit]

Modern types[edit]

There are three general types of Christian Universalism today – Evangelical Universalism, Charismatic Universalism, and Liberal Christian Universalism – which by themselves or in combination with one another describe the vast majority of currently existing and identifiable versions of Christian Universalist belief and practice.

Evangelical Universalism[edit]

The type of Christian Universalism that departs the least from orthodox or traditional Protestant Christian doctrine is Evangelical (Christian) Universalism, also called Biblical or Trinitarian Universalism. Evangelical Universalists hold to conservative positions on most theological or doctrinal issues except for the doctrine of hell, in which case they assert universal reconciliation instead of eternal torment.[33] They tend to emphasize the substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ for the sins of all humanity as the basis for their Universalism.

In 2006 a mainstream evangelical writer, revealed[34] as Robin Parry in 2009, under the pseudonym of "Gregory MacDonald" (taken from the names, Gregory of Nyssa and George MacDonald) released a book The Evangelical Universalist.[35] In 2008 this inspired the creation of a forum,[36] featuring "Gregory MacDonald" and Thomas Talbott, to discuss Evangelical Universalism and related topics. Evangelical Universalists derive a large part of their beliefs from Evangelicalism and Reformed theology. Many of them come from an Evangelical Christian background, but they may or may not identify with this movement and seek to remain with it.

Some Evangelical Universalists avoid using the word "Universalism" to describe their beliefs, perhaps because of the negative connotations of this word among conservative Christians. Alternative terms that are in use among Evangelical Universalists include the "Larger Hope" or "Blessed Hope" and the "Victorious Gospel."[37]

Charismatic Universalism[edit]

Some Christians with a background in the Charismatic movement or Pentecostalism have developed a version of Universalism which could be called Charismatic (Christian) Universalism. Charismatic Universalists usually do not call their theology "Universalism" but commonly refer to their specific beliefs by the terms "Reconciliation" (shorthand for universal reconciliation, the doctrine of apocatastasis) and "Sonship" (shorthand for "Manifest Sonship" which is a variant of the doctrine of theosis).[38] The term "Feast of Tabernacles" is used by some Charismatic Universalists as a term for their post-Pentecostal spiritual tradition, reflecting a symbolic interpretation of this Jewish festival as an entrance into a fuller knowledge and relationship with God and understanding of God's plan for humanity.[39]

Charismatic Universalism is marked by its emphasis on theosis; the idea that the return of Christ is a body of perfected human beings who are the "Manifested Sons of God" instead of a literal return of the person of Jesus;[40] the idea that these Sons will reign on the earth and transform all other human beings from sin to perfection during an age that is coming soon (a version of millennialism);[41] and the absolute sovereignty of God, the nonexistence or severe limitation of human free will, and the inevitable triumph of God's plan of universal reconciliation.[42] Some see similarities to the teachings of Jacob Arminius, a Dutch theologian who tried to modify John Calvin's teachings about predestination.

Many Charismatic Universalists meet in house churches or do not belong to a church at all. Most of the evidence of Universalism existing as a school of thought within the Charismatic movement is found in a large number of internet-based ministries that are informally networked with one another.[43]

Liberal Christian Universalism[edit]

Liberal Christian Universalists include some members of mainline Protestant denominations, some people influenced by the New Age and New Thought movements, some people in the emerging church movement, some Unitarian Universalists who continue to follow Jesus as their primary spiritual teacher, and some Christians from other religious backgrounds who may or may not attend church.

Liberal Christian Universalism emphasizes the all-inclusive love of God and tends to be more open to finding truth and value in non-Christian spiritual traditions compared to the attitude of other forms of Christian Universalism, while remaining generally Christ-centered.[44] In contrast to Evangelical Universalism, Liberal Christian Universalism views the Bible as an imperfect human document containing divine revelations, is not necessarily Trinitarian, and often downplays or rejects blood atonement theology in its view of the crucifixion of Jesus.[45] Some Liberal Christian Universalists believe in mystical philosophies such as panentheism and process theology, Gnostic or New Age ideas such as the preexistence and reincarnation of the soul,[46] and New Thought ideas such as the law of attraction.[47]

The Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship is an organization for Liberal Christian Universalists, especially those who belong to the Unitarian Universalist Association. The Liberal Catholic Church, the Catholic Universalist Church and the Unity Church are liberal Christian denominations which teach some Universalist beliefs.[48][49][50]

Hybrid types[edit]

Former Pentecostal Bishop Carlton Pearson's "Gospel of Inclusion" appears to be a hybrid between Charismatic and Liberal Christian Universalism. He is now a minister in the United Church of Christ, a liberal Christian denomination, but continues to believe in some ideas and practices of Pentecostal or Charismatic forms of Christianity. Pearson has also incorporated some New Age and New Thought teachings into his message.[51] Brian McLaren is a Christian leader in the emerging church movement who is sympathetic to the idea of Universalism but does not embrace it.[52]

A number of ministers and evangelists connected with Restoration Nation conferences are Universalists who draw from both the Evangelical and Charismatic traditions.[53] One notable example is Robert Rutherford, a minister from Georgia (USA) who was a finalist on The Learning Channel's 2006 reality TV series "The Messengers."[54] Another example is Dick King, an independent Charismatic Baptist pastor in North Little Rock, Arkansas, whose church left the Southern Baptist Convention in 2004.[55]

The Heavenly Faith denomination, which is a Restorationist sect that blends Eastern Orthodoxy, Methodism, and Charismaticism, openly embraces Universalism, even going so far as to say that all Creation, including those individuations of it which are currently enemies of the Church, will eventually be saved. However, it maintains a traditional eschatology.[56]

The Christian Universalist Association is putting forth a message which seeks common ground among all major contemporary types of Christian Universalism.[57]

Modern Proponents of Christian Universalism[edit]

The conversion of Bishop Carlton Pearson to a form of Universalism and his subsequent excommunication by the Joint College of African-American Pentecostal Bishops in 2004 caused Christian Universalism to gain increased media attention because of Pearson's popularity and celebrity status.[58]

In 2007, Eric Stetson and Kalen Fristad gathered a group of thirteen ministers and evangelists from several denominations to found the Christian Universalist Association, an interdenominational organization for churches, ministries, and individuals who believe in Christian Universalism.[59] About the current state of Christian Universalism, they state: "Many Christian philosophers, theologians, writers, and scholars are coming to believe in a Universalist interpretation of Christianity. A rapidly growing number of books are being published on the subject of Christian Universalism. Hundreds of Christian Universalist websites have exploded across the internet over the past few years, run by people with a wide variety of religious backgrounds and viewpoints. It appears that Universalism is beginning to develop into one of the most significant ecumenical movements among Christians of our time."[60]


There are many religious issues on which Christian Universalists disagree with each other, depending on their theological background and denominational tradition. Some examples include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Russell Streeter Familiar conversations: in which the salvation of all mankind is ... – Page 266 1835 "We now come to those distinguished men, MURRAY and WINCHESTER, who, as our oppo- sers would have people believe, were the inventors and first preachers of Christian Universalism."
  2. ^ not Russell Streeter. The Christian repository: Volume 9 – Page 218 Church of the United Brethren in Christ (1800–1889) – 1829 "In a piece entitled Christian Universalism, in the Christian Intelligencer, volume 3d, page 4, he wrote the following: "The Editor," speaking of himself, "deems it a solemn obligation to protest against proceedings calculated to make an"
  3. ^ The journal of Unitarian Universalist history: Volumes 26–28 Unitarian Universalist Historical Society – 1999 "The adoption of the name Christian Universalist can, nevertheless, be explained plausibly in the context of Dean's debate with Aesop. "
  4. ^ Vincent, Ken R. (July/August 2006). "The Salvation Conspiracy: How Hell Became Eternal". The Universalist Herald. See also: J.W. Hanson. Universalism: The Prevailing Doctrine Of The Christian Church During Its First 500 Years. Boston and Chicago: Universalist Publishing House, 1899. Archive: Prevailing
  5. ^ Hanson, John Wesley. Universalism: The Prevailing Doctrine of the Christian Church During its First Five Hundred Years. ISBN 978-0559563157.
  6. ^ Vincent, Ken R. (January/February 2006). "Where Have All the Universalists Gone?". The Universalist Herald.
  7. ^ Plain Guide to Universalism Chapter 2, Paragraph 1
  8. ^ Hanson, J.W. (1888). "Destroy Soul and Body in Hell". The Bible Hell (4th ed.). Boston: Universalist Publishing House.: "The immortal soul is not meant, but the life. As though Jesus had said: 'Fear Not those who can only kill the body, but rather him, who if he chose could annihilate the whole being.'"
  9. ^ "Historic and Universalist Professions of Faith". Auburn University. n.d. sec. Five Principles of Faith. Retrieved 2017-04-24.
  10. ^ "The Christian Universalist Association > About Us / FAQ". 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  11. ^ [1] Plain Guide to Universalism Chapter 2, Section III There are some Universalists who hold to punishment after death, nevertheless, we are glad to hail them as Universalists. They agree with us in our views of the great consummation, -- all punishment, in their view, is disciplinary, and they denounce punishment, either in this world or the next, having any other object, as cruel and unjust.
  12. ^ J. W. Hanson, citing Assemani Bib. Orientalis, III, p. 324.
  13. ^ McMillen, Jacob "How & When The Idea of Eternal Torment Invaded Church Doctrine" [2]
  14. ^ "Tatian's Address to the Greeks, chap. XIII. & XIV". Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  15. ^ [3]The Salvation Conspiracy: How Hell Became Eternal "The first person to write about Eternal Hell was the Latin North African Tertullian"
  16. ^ Edward Beecher, "HISTORY OF OPINIONS ON THE SCRIPTURAL DOCTRINE OF RETRIBUTION"[4] "What, then, was the state of facts as to the leading theological schools of the Christian world, in the age of Origen, and some centuries after? It was, in brief, this: There were at least six theological schools in the Church at large. Of these six schools, one, and only one, was decidedly and earnestly in favor of the doctrine of future eternal punishment. One was in favor of the annihilation of the wicked. Two were in favor of the doctrine of universal restoration on the principles of Origen, and two in favor of universal restoration on the principles of Theodore of Mopsuestia."
  17. ^ a b The Salvation Conspiracy: How Hell Became Eternal
  18. ^ "Eternal" Punishment (Matthew 25:46) Is NOT Found In The Greek New Testament.
  19. ^ A look at the word "aionion"
  20. ^ Gregg, Steve. All You ever Wanted to Know about Hell p.130=131
  21. ^ Vincent, Marvin. "Note on Olethron Aionion (eternal destruction)". Word Studies in the New Testament. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  22. ^ Talbott, Thomas, "Heaven and Hell in Christian Thought", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), forthcoming URL = <>. "Theists who accept the traditional idea of everlasting punishment, or even the idea of an everlasting separation from God, must either reject the idea that God wills or desires to save all humans and thus desires to reconcile them all to himself (see proposition (1) in section 1 above) or reject the idea that God will successfully accomplish his will and satisfy his own desire in this matter "
  23. ^ "Christian Universalism". The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. New York, London: Funk and Wagnalls Company. p. 96.
  24. ^ "The Christian Universalist Association > History of Universalism". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  25. ^ "James Reilly" Archived 2008-04-14 at the Wayback Machine., "History: Early Modern".
  26. ^ "George de Benneville". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  27. ^ "Elhanan Winchester" Archived 2008-08-20 at the Wayback Machine., "Biographies: Elehan Winchester".
  28. ^ "Hosea Ballou". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  29. ^ "Hannah Whitall Smith". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  30. ^ "The Christian Universalist Association > History of Universalism". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  31. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Unity". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  32. ^ "Who Are The UU Christians?". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  33. ^ "Evangelical Universalism – Oxymoron". February 25, 2008.
  34. ^ Parry, Robin (2009-08-29). "Theological Scribbles: I am the Evangelical Universalist". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  35. ^ MacDonald, Gregory (a pseudonym). The Evangelical Universalist. 2006. ISBN 1-59752-365-8
  36. ^ "Forum". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  37. ^ Amirault, Gary. "Tentmaker Ministries battles for the Victorious Gospel of Jesus Christ". Tentmaker Ministries. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  38. ^ "From The Candlestick to the Throne, Part 33, The Church in Ephesus" (section "I Will Remove Your Candlestick"). Author refers to "the teaching or doctrine of reconciliation, sonship and the kingdom".
  39. ^ "Chapter 7 The Feast of Tabernacles"., and "Coming into Light prt 1". ToSeekTheLight blog.
  40. ^ See "ID69" Archived 2008-07-19 at the Wayback Machine and "ID349" Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine.
  41. ^ "ID269" Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "Free Moral Agent-Eby",, and "ID116" Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine.].
  43. ^ "is one of the largest collections of links to Charismatic Universalist websites, ministries, house churches and groups". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  44. ^ Non-Christian. Example of this view.
  45. ^ See "Deity of Christ", "(section "Christian Universalism 'Endorsed' by Jesus Seminar" Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine, and "Metaphysical Bible",
  46. ^ See Oneness True Spiritual Life", "Conclusion" and "Reincarnation".
  47. ^ See "Pastor compares church"., July 14, 2007. and "You are not your DNS".
  48. ^ "See especially the section entitled "The Liberal Catholic Act of Faith"". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  49. ^ "Unity".
  50. ^ "Who we are: Teachings".
  51. ^ "New Thought Ministries of Oregon – Homepage". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  52. ^ See "Brian's rejection that he is a Universalist" Archived 2009-08-08 at the Wayback Machine. See "Mark Driscoll criticizes fellow Evangelical Brian McLaren for his "denial of hell" and other liberal theological ideas." Archived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback Machine See also "McLaren discusses his struggle" with the doctrine of eternal hell and his unwillingness to embrace and preach it.
  53. ^ "Videos of many conference speakers"[permanent dead link].
  54. ^ See "Meet the Messengers" Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine., and Robert Rutherford blog.
  55. ^ "Our Journey" Archived 2008-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. Indian Hills Church.
  56. ^ Heavenly Faith Archived 2013-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ "The Christian Universalist Association > A Unique Spiritual Movement". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  58. ^ "'Inclusionism' deemed heresy". Washington Times. 2004-04-20. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  59. ^ "The Christian Universalist Association > Special Events > Founding Board Meeting". Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  60. ^ The History of Universalism (Part Two)
  61. ^ "Should we Form Universalist" and "FAQ: Organization" offer two very different views on this subject.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bressler, Ann Lee (2001). The Universalist Movement in America, 1770–1880. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Ezekiel Stone Wiggins Universalism unfounded being a complete analysis and refutation of the system Published 1867 in Nepean, Ontario Universalism unfounded
  • Cassara, Ernest, ed. (1971). Universalism in America: A Documentary History of a Liberal Faith. Skinner House Books. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

External links[edit]