Cloud-based quantum computing

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Cloud-based quantum computing is the invocation of quantum emulators, simulators or processors through the cloud. Increasingly, cloud services are being looked on as the method for providing access to quantum processing.


Cloud-based quantum computing is used in several contexts:

Existing platforms[edit]

  • Forest by Rigetti Computing, which consists of a toolsuite for quantum computing. It includes a programming language,[7] development tools and example algorithms.
  • LIQUi|> by Microsoft, which is a software architecture and toolsuite for quantum computing. It includes a programming language, example optimization and scheduling algorithms, and quantum simulators.
  • IBM Q Experience by IBM[8], providing access to quantum hardware as well as HPC simulators. These can be accessed programmatically using the Python-based Qiskit framework, or via graphical interface with the IBM Q Experience GUI [9]. Both are based on the OpenQASM standard for representing quantum operations. There is also a tutorial and online community[10]. Currently available simulators and quantum devices are:
    • Multiple transmon qubit processors[11]. Those with 5 and 16 qubits are publicly accessible. Devices with 20 qubits are available through the IBM Q Network[12].
    • A 32 qubit cloud-based simulator. Software for locally hosted simulators are also provided as part of Qiskit.
  • Quantum in the Cloud by The University of Bristol, which consists of a quantum simulator and a four qubit optical quantum system.[13]
  • Quantum Playground by Google, which features a simulator with a simple interface, and a scripting language and 3D quantum state visualization.[14]
  • Quantum in the Cloud by Tsinghua University. It is a four-qubit new quantum cloud experience based on nuclear magnetic resonance-NMRCloudQ.
  • Quantum Inspire by Qutech, providing access to QX, a quantum simulator backend. Three instances of the QX simulator are available, simulating up to 26 qubits on a commodity cloud-based server and up to 37 qubits using 16 'fat' nodes on Cartesius, the Dutch national supercomputer of SurfSara. Circuit based quantum algorithms can be created through a graphical user interface or through the Python-based Quantum Inspire SDK, providing a backend for the projectQ framework, the Qiskit framework. Quantum Inspire provides a knowledge base[15] with user guides and some example algorithms written in cQASM.


  1. ^ "Undergraduates on a cloud using IBM Quantum Experience". 9 June 2016.
  2. ^ Fedortchenko, Serguei (8 July 2016). "A quantum teleportation experiment for undergraduate students". arXiv:1607.02398 [quant-ph].
  3. ^ Alsina, Daniel; Latorre, José Ignacio (11 July 2016). "Experimental test of Mermin inequalities on a five-qubit quantum computer". Physical Review A. 94 (1): 012314. arXiv:1605.04220. Bibcode:2016PhRvA..94a2314A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.012314.
  4. ^ Devitt, Simon J. (29 September 2016). "Performing quantum computing experiments in the cloud". Physical Review A. 94 (3): 032329. arXiv:1605.05709. Bibcode:2016PhRvA..94c2329D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032329.
  5. ^ Linke, Norbert M.; Maslov, Dmitri; Roetteler, Martin; Debnath, Shantanu; Figgatt, Caroline; Landsman, Kevin A.; Wright, Kenneth; Monroe, Christopher (28 March 2017). "Experimental comparison of two quantum computing architectures". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (13): 3305–3310. doi:10.1073/pnas.1618020114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5380037.
  6. ^ Wootton, James (12 March 2017). "Why we need to make quantum games".
  7. ^ Smith, Robert S.; Curtis, Michael J.; Zeng, William J. (2016-08-10). "A Practical Quantum Instruction Set Architecture". arXiv:1608.03355 [quant-ph].
  8. ^ "IBM Q Homepage".
  9. ^ "IBM Quantum Experience".
  10. ^ "IBM Q Experience tutorial".
  11. ^ "Quantum devices and simulators".
  12. ^ "IBM Q Network".
  13. ^ "Quantum in the Cloud". Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  14. ^ "Quantum Computing Playground". Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  15. ^ "The basics of Quantum Computing". Quantum Inspire. Retrieved 15 Nov 2018.

External links[edit]